Genetic Improvement of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus Using Backcross Strategy in Indonesia
A. Sunarma, M. A. Nurhidayat, Maskur
African catfish (Indonesian name: Dumbo catfish, Clarias gariepinus) introduced to Indonesia in 1985 and cultured by fish farmer especially in Java Island. Good performance Dumbo catfish either growth or survival rate compared to local catfish (Clarias batrachus) increased aquaculture productivity on fish farmer level. Unfortunately, massive seed production of Dumbo catfish with uncontrolled broodstock management such as inbreeding case was occurred due to decreases of seed quality. Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish can be identified on decreases of growth and survival rate and increase of fluctuating asymmetry. A study on fluctuating asymmetry showed that Inbreeded-Dumbo catfish seeds originated from some production region in Java Island have high asymmetry and abnormality (Nurhidayat, 2000).
Some of strategies could be done to improve of Dumbo catfish seed/broodstock quality such as hybridization and selection, gynogenesis, transgenic or backcross. Quality improvements on Dumbo catfish broodstock have been done at Sukabumi Freshwater Aquaculture Development Center (Sukabumi FADC) with backcross strategy. The researches including production of backcross broodstock (year 2000), progeny test of backcross broodstock and its seed (year 2001) and application of backcross broodstock production (year 2002 – 2004). The research result a new variety of catfish called SANGKURIANG catfish. SANGKURIANG catfish has better growth and reproduction characteristics than inbreeded-Dumbo catfish.
SANGKURIANG broodstock has higher fecundity 33.33% and older first gonad maturity than inbreeded-Dumbo. SANGKURIANG seed has higher growth rate 43.57% and 14.61% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 5 – 26 days and 26 – 40 days seed rearing, respectively. SANGKURIANG mature production result higher growth rate 11.36% and 16.44% than inbreeded-Dumbo at 0 – 200 gram/fish and 200 – 700 gram/fish, respectively. On marketable size production, SANGKURIANG reach Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) 0.8 – 1.0.
Presented in “World Aquaculture 2005”, World Aquaculture Society Meeting, Bali May 09-13 2005